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Teaching English with CLIL: An Overview of Recent Trends and Developments

Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) has emerged as a transformative approach in the field of Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL). It intertwines language acquisition with the teaching of subject content, offering a dual-focused educational framework.

This academic exploration delves into the recent advancements and trends within CLIL, drawing upon a selection of scholarly articles published over the last few years. It underscores the multifaceted nature of CLIL, illustrating its potential to enrich the TEFL landscape by fostering a more integrated and reflective educational practice. Through the lens of recent literature, it becomes evident that CLIL’s success hinges on a nuanced balance of content, language, cognition, and culture, demanding a holistic and critically engaged pedagogical approach.

Integrating the 4Cs into CLIL

The inception of CLIL is closely associated with the 4Cs curriculum: Content, Communication, Cognition, and Culture. Coyle (2019) elucidates how a well-structured CLIL lesson should seamlessly blend these elements, proposing strategies for amalgamating language with skills, balancing receptive and productive skills, and catering to diverse learner styles. The article also touches on the inherent challenges and rewards of CLIL, emphasizing the importance of teacher training and the promotion of intercultural competence and critical thinking.

Historical Perspectives through CLIL

A notable application of CLIL is in the domain of history education. Hillyard et al. (2020) examine how history instruction through English can facilitate learners’ grasp of historical narratives and terminologies, alongside enhancing their academic language proficiency. The paper outlines various pedagogical strategies, including collaborative learning and cognitive challenges, aimed at reinforcing both historical knowledge and language skills. Despite certain obstacles such as material scarcity and assessment concerns, the article suggests viable solutions to enhance CLIL’s efficacy in history teaching.

Diverse Subjects, Unified Approach

The versatility of CLIL is showcased in the work by Onestopenglish (2021), presenting a compendium of lesson plans across multiple subjects like science, geography, and arts, tailored for teenage learners of varying linguistic abilities. These plans emphasize interactive and integrative learning experiences, engaging students in multifaceted tasks that foster both subject matter comprehension and language development.

Sample CLIL Lesson Plans

Bridge (2021) contributes further to the CLIL repository with two meticulously designed lesson plans focusing on natural disasters and ancient civilizations, catered to intermediate and advanced learners, respectively. These plans are distinguished by their inclusion of warm-up activities, language and content-focused sections, thereby facilitating a holistic learning experience that nurtures content knowledge and linguistic competences through dynamic engagement.

A Critical Perspective on CLIL

Lin (2020) presents a critical analysis of CLIL, probing into its philosophical underpinnings and socio-political dimensions. This critique invites educators to reconsider CLIL beyond its pedagogical utility, advocating for a critical pedagogy that confronts the hegemonic narratives within CLIL discourse. This perspective urges a reevaluation of the power dynamics at play, championing a more inclusive and justice-oriented approach to language and content education.

Title: “Engaging Biodiversity: CLIL Strategies for Teaching Science in English”

Lesson Plan Overview:

Grade Level: 8th Grade
Subject: Science – Biodiversity
Language Level: B1 (Intermediate)
Duration: 60 minutes
Learning Objectives:

  • Content Objective: Students will understand the concept of biodiversity and its importance to ecosystems.
  • Language Objective: Students will be able to describe biodiversity using key vocabulary in English.


  • Pictures of various ecosystems
  • Biodiversity vocabulary list (e.g., ecosystem, species, habitat)
  • Video clip on biodiversity
  • Worksheets for group activities
  • World map
  • Flashcards with vocabulary words

Lesson Plan:

Introduction (10 minutes)

  • Warm-Up Activity: Show students pictures of different ecosystems (e.g., rainforest, desert, coral reefs) and ask them to describe what they see in English.
  • Introduction to Topic: Briefly introduce the concept of biodiversity and its significance using a simple and engaging video clip. Pause the video at key moments to explain vocabulary and concepts.

Development (30 minutes)

  • Vocabulary Introduction: Introduce key biodiversity vocabulary using flashcards. Students repeat the words after the teacher and use them in sentences.
  • Interactive Lecture: Discuss the importance of biodiversity, focusing on how different species interact within ecosystems and the impact of human actions on biodiversity. Use a world map to point out various biodiversity hotspots.
  • Group Activity: Divide the class into small groups. Each group receives a worksheet with a specific ecosystem. They must identify the ecosystem’s key species, describe their interdependence, and discuss threats to their biodiversity. Students use the vocabulary list to support their discussion and presentation.

Practice (15 minutes)

  • Role-Play Activity: In their groups, students create short role-plays illustrating human impacts on biodiversity and propose solutions. Encourage creativity and the use of newly learned vocabulary.

Conclusion (5 minutes)

  • Wrap-Up: Groups share their findings and role-plays with the class. Highlight the importance of preserving biodiversity.
  • Homework Assignment: Students write a short paragraph on why biodiversity is important for our planet, using at least five of the vocabulary words learned today.


  • Participation in group discussions and activities.
  • Accuracy and creativity in the role-play presentation.
  • Homework paragraph for understanding and vocabulary usage.

Adaptations for Different Learners:

  • Provide additional visual aids and simplified definitions for ESL learners.
  • Encourage peer support and collaborative learning for students who may need extra help.
  • Offer enrichment activities, like research projects on local biodiversity, for advanced learners.


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